In this study, the effects of Mesona chinensis polysaccharide (MCP) on the pasting, thermal, rheological, and textural properties of wheat starch were investigated. Rapid viscosity analysis results showed that MCP protects the integrity of starch granules at low concentration in the early stage of pasting. The gelatinization temperature of wheat starch-MCP gels was markedly increased with the increase in polysaccharide concentration, whereas gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel) decreased. Rheological analysis showed that the starch:MCP = 8.5:1.5 system exhibited a strong thixotropic property and the highest G' and G″ among the other systems. The same results were observed in the textural experiment, indicating the existence of strong intermolecular interactions between starch granules and MCP. These results indicated that MCP can improve the thermal stability in the early stage of pasting and enhance the rheological properties of wheat starch.