Explosive puffing can induce changes in the chemical, nutritional, and sensory quality of red ginseng. The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of red ginseng and puffed red ginseng were determined in bulk oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions.
Bulk oils were heated at 60°C and 100°C and O/W emulsions were treated under riboflavin photosensitization. In vitro antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhudrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content, were also performed.
The total ginsenoside contents of ethanolic extract from red ginseng and puffed red ginseng were 42.33 mg/g and 49.22 mg/g, respectively. All results from above in vitro antioxidant assays revealed that extracts of puffed red ginseng had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than those of red ginseng (p < 0.05). Generally, extracts of puffed red and red ginseng had high antioxidant properties in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions. However, in bulk oil systems, extracts of puffed red and red ginseng inhibited or accelerated rates of lipid oxidation, depending on treatment temperature and the type of assay used.
Although ethanolic extracts of puffed red ginseng showed stronger antioxidant capacities than those of red ginseng when in vitro assays were used, more pro-oxidant properties were observed in bulk oils and O/W emulsions.