Vertebral compression fractures are a common clinical occurrence in elderly individuals with osteoporosis. No current evidence exists on risk factors and clinical impact of discharge to inpatient (IP) care facility after vertebral augmentation procedures.
The 2012-2014 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database files were queried using Current Procedural Terminology codes for vertebroplasty (22520, 22521, and 22522) and kyphoplasty (22523, 22524, and 22525). Discharge to IP care facility included skilled-care facilities and IP rehabilitation units. A total of 2361 patients were included in the final cohort.
Of 2361 patients, 1962 (83.1%) were discharged home and 399 (16.9%) were discharged to an IP care facility. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥65 years (P < 0.001), dependent preoperative functional health status (P < 0.001), hypertension (P = 0.001), preoperative transfusion (P = 0.043), IP admission status (P < 0.001), thoracolumbar procedure versus thoracic-only procedure (P = 0.012), and length of stay >1 day (P < 0.001) to be significant predictors for a discharge to an IP care facility. In addition, discharge to an IP care facility was associated with a significant greater risk of 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). No significant associations were found with between IP-care discharge destination and any 30-day complication, 30-day readmission, and 30-day reoperation.
Discharge to IP care facilities after vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty is associated with a 3.6 times greater odds of mortality as compared with home discharge. Providers can use the risk profile data to better allow preoperative stratification of patients to ensure that discharge location is appropriate to a patient's need to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes.