The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effects of congenitally missing teeth on craniofacial morphology and to characterize the features of maxillofacial morphology of oligodontia patients associated with individual skeletal maturity by assessment with the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method.
A total of 106 non-syndromic Japanese patients with congenitally missing teeth (except for third molars) were selected and categorized into two groups according to the severity of congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia group, 1-5 missing teeth [n = 56]; oligodontia group, ≥ 6 missing teeth [n = 50]). A control group included orthodontic patients without either skeletal disharmony or congenitally missing teeth (n = 63). Subjects in oligodontia and control groups were further categorized into two subgroups on the basis of cervical stage (CS): stage I (CS2 or 3; n = 27 and n = 31, respectively) and stage II (CS4 or above; n = 23 and n = 32, respectively). Lateral cephalograms were analyzed by using eight angular and eight linear measurements. Z-scores were formulated on the basis of age and sex and were matched to the Japanese norm. Tukey tests and t tests were performed.
Compared with the control group, the hypodontia group had significantly smaller U1 to FH plane angle and A-B plane angle; U1-L1 was significantly larger. The oligodontia group had significantly smaller ANS-Me, L1 to mandibular plane angle, and Ptm-A; U1-L1 was significantly larger. At stage I, the oligodontia group had significantly smaller ANS-Me, gonial angle, and ANS-U1. At stage II, the oligodontia group had significantly smaller U1 to FH plane angle, L1 to mandibular plane angle, Ptm-A, and Go-Pog; it also had significantly larger U1-L1.
The present study suggested that skeletal patterns differ along with the number of congenitally missing teeth and that, in oligodontia patients, skeletal patterns differ before and after growth peak. It is important to consider the skeletal characteristics of tooth agenesis patients when designing a treatment plan.