The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) readministration using afatinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a sensitive non-T790M EGFR mutation who had received cytotoxic chemotherapy after acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
Eligible patients had EGFR-mutant tumors resistant to first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs and an EGFR-TKI-free period with cytotoxic agents. Confirmation of absence of the T790M mutation was required before registration. Afatinib (40 mg/body) was administered daily. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). We assumed estimated and threshold PFS times of 3.3 and 1 months, with an α of 0.05 and β of 0.1, respectively.
Twelve patients were enrolled from December 2014 to May 2017. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 17% and 84%, respectively. The median PFS time was 4.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-5.8), which met the pre-defined primary endpoint. The median overall survival was 11.6 months (95% CI 9.2-not reached). Grade 3 or worse adverse events included diarrhea (25%), elevated creatinine levels (8%), and hypokalemia (8%), without any treatment-related deaths.
EGFR-TKI readministration with afatinib for sensitive EGFR-mutant NSCLC without T790M after resistance to a first- or second-generation EGFR-TKI yielded modest activity with tolerable toxicity. It might be one of the treatment options in patients who do not possess T790M tumors, although further studies in this patient setting are warranted.