A combination of in vivo (ileal cannulated pigs) and in vitro (fecal inoculum-based incubation) methodologies were used to predict the effects of dietary supplementation with soluble or insoluble dietary fiber on hindgut VFA production and absorption. Energy contribution from hindgut VFA and apparent ileal (AID) and total tract (ATTD) digestibility of energy and DM was also investigated. Twelve ileal cannulated Genesus barrows (initial BW: 35.1 ± 0.44 kg) were allocated to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets without (control), or with flaxseed meal (FM) or oat hulls (OH) in a 2-period cross-over design. Flaxseed meal and oat hulls were used as sources of soluble and insoluble fiber, respectively. In each period, 4 pigs were offered 1 of the 3 diets, for 12 d followed by fecal (day 13 and 14) and ileal digesta collection (day 15 and 16) (n = 8). Ileal digesta were collected, freeze-dried, and subjected to in vitro fermentation using fecal inoculum, to predict production and absorption of VFA and energy production, and digestibility of DM and energy. The quantity of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids produced by in vitro fermentation was higher (P < 0.05) for the diet containing flaxseed meal compared with the control and OH diets. The predicted quantity of VFA produced and absorbed in the hindgut was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs that consumed the FM diet than those fed the control or OH diet. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) AID and ATTD of DM than pigs offered the OH or FM diet. The determined disappearance of DM was lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the control and OH diets than in pigs that consumed the FM diet. The quantity of digested energy in the upper gut was reduced (P < 0.05) more in pigs fed the OH diet than in pigs fed the FM diet. The consumption of the FM diet increased (P < 0.05) the quantity of digested energy, energy produced and absorbed from VFA in the hindgut, and the percentage contribution of VFA from fermentation to total tract digestible energy, compared with the control and OH diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with insoluble fiber from oat hulls reduced ileal digested energy more than soluble fiber from flaxseed meal. Addition of soluble fiber to pig diets increased the energy contribution from VFA produced by hindgut fermentation to the total tract digestible energy, compared with dietary addition of insoluble fiber.