Like nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a new gasotransmitter which plays an important role as a signaling molecule in many physiological processes in higher plants. Although fruit ripening is a complex process associated with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen oxygen species (RNS), little is known about the potential involvement of endogenous H2S. Using sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as a model non-climacteric fruit during the green and red ripening stages, we studied endogenous H2S content and cytosolic l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES) activity which increased by 14% and 28%, respectively, in red pepper fruits. NADPH is a redox compound and key cofactor required for cell growth, proliferation and detoxification. We studied the NADPH-regenerating enzyme, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), whose activity decreased by 34% during ripening. To gain a better understanding of its potential regulation by H2S, we obtained a 50-75% ammonium sulfate-enriched protein fraction containing the NADP-ICDH protein; with the aid of in vitro assays in the presence of H2S, we observed that 2 and 10 mM NaHS used as H2S donors resulted in a decrease of up to 36% and 45%, respectively, in NADP-ICDH activity, which was unaffected by reduced glutathione (GSH). On the other hand, peroxynitrite (ONOO-), S-nitrosocyteine (CysNO) and DETA-NONOate, with the last two acting as NO donors, also inhibited NADP-ICDH activity. In silico analysis of the tertiary structure of sweet pepper NADP-ICDH activity (UniProtKB ID A0A2G2Y555) suggests that residues Cys133 and Tyr450 are the most likely potential targets for S-nitrosation and nitration, respectively. Taken together, the data reveal that the increase in the H2S production capacity of red fruits is due to higher L-DES activity during non-climacteric pepper fruit ripening. In vitro assays appear to show that H2S inhibits NADP-ICDH activity, thus suggesting that this enzyme may be regulated by persulfidation, as well as by S-nitrosation and nitration. NO and H2S may therefore regulate NADPH production and consequently cellular redox status during pepper fruit ripening.