N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant capacities. We aim to explore whether DMF could regulate cisplatin-induced kidney injury in rats via NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway.
A total of 30 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into sham group, cisplatin treatment group (DDP group) and DMF + cisplatin treatment group (DMF group), with 10 rats in each group. After 10 days of treatment, we collected serum and kidney samples of rats. Serum levels of creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected using relative commercial kits. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe pathological changes of kidneys. The relevant oxidative stress indicators in the kidney homogenates of each group were detected by commercial kits, including malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). Protein expressions of Nrf2 and NF-κB in kidney tissues were detected by Western blot.
Serum levels of Cr and BUN were lower in DMF group than those of DDP group. Higher activities of SOD, GSH, CAT and T-AOC were found in DMF group compared with those of DDP group. However, MAD and ROS contents were remarkably decreased in DMF group than those of DDP group. DMF pretreatment remarkably reduced renal pathological changes. Western blot analysis also indicated that DMF effectively upregulated expression levels of Nrf2, Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD (P) H, quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), while downregulated NF-κB.
DMF could inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway and reduce inflammatory response by attenuating NF-κB signaling pathway, thus protecting cisplatin-induced kidney injury.