Approximately 27% of atrophic glossitis (AG) patients have the serum gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity. This study assessed whether the serum GPCA or AG itself was a significant factor causing anemia, hematinic deficiencies, and hyperhomocysteinemia in GPCA-positive AG (GPCA+AG) and GPCA-negative AG (GPCA-AG) patients.
The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean blood hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine levels were measured and compared between any two of three groups of 284 GPCA+AG, 780 GPCA-AG patients, and 532 healthy control subjects.
Both 284 GPCA+AG and 780 GPCA-AG patients had significantly higher frequencies of microcytosis, macrocytosis, blood Hb, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies, and hyperhomocysteinemia than 532 healthy control subjects. Moreover, 284 GPCA+AG patients had significantly higher frequencies of macrocytosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, and hyperhomocysteinemia than 780 GPCA-AG patients. Sixty-three (22.2%) of 284 GPCA+AG patients and 139 (17.8%) of 780 GPCA-AG patients had anemia. The normocytic anemia (42.9%), pernicious anemia (34.9%), and iron deficiency anemia (15.9%) were the three most common types of anemia in the 63 anemic GPCA+AG patients. Moreover, the normocytic anemia (64.8%), iron deficiency anemia (14.4%), and thalassemia trait-induced anemia (13.7%) were the three most common types of anemia in 139 anemic GPCA-AG patients.
The disease of AG itself is a significant factor causing anemia, hematinic deficiencies, and hyperhomocysteinemia in both GPCA+AG and GPCA-AG patients. The serum GPCA also plays a significant role in causing macrocytosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, and hyperhomocysteinemia in GPCA+AG patients.