Both exogenous vitamin D and selenium reduce thyroid antibody titers. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the impact of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity is affected by selenium intake.
The study included 47 euthyroid women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and low vitamin D status, 23 of whom had been treated with selenomethionine (200 μg daily) for at least 12 months before the beginning of the study. During the study, all patients were treated with vitamin D preparations (4000 IU daily). Serum titers of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies, as well as circulating levels of thyrotropin, free thyroid hormones and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured before vitamin D supplementation and 6 months later. Moreover, at the beginning and at the end of the study, we calculated Jostel's thyrotropin index, the SPINA-GT index and the SPINA-GD index.
With the exception of the free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine ratio and the SPINA-GD index, there were no differences between the study groups. In both groups, vitamin D increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, reduced thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody titers, as well as increased the SPINA-GT index. The effects on antibody titers and the SPINA-GT index were more pronounced in women receiving selenomethionine. Neither in selenomethionine-treated nor in selenomethionine-naïve women vitamin D affected serum hormone levels, Jostel's index and the SPINA-GD index.
The results of the study suggest that selenium intake enhances the effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity.