Non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) has been used to distinguish wheat chromosomes and to detect alien chromosomes in the wheat genome. In this study, five different oligonucleotide probes were used with ND-FISH to examine 21 wheat cultivars and lines. These oligonucleotide probes distinguished 42 wheat chromosomes and also detected rye chromatin in the wheat genome. Moreover, the signal patterns of the oligonucleotide probes Oligo-pTa535-1 and Oligo-pSc119.2-1 showed high polymorphism in the wheat chromosomes. A total of 17.6% of the A group chromosomes, 25.9% of the B group chromosomes and 8.9% of the D group chromosomes showed obvious mutations when they were compared to the standard ND-FISH signal patterns, and most of them were Oligo-pSc119.2-1 mutants. The results suggested that these polymorphisms could be induced by the crossing of wheat cultivars. The results provided more information for the further application of oligonucleotide probes and ND-FISH.