Adult mesenchymal stem cells exert immunomodulatory effects that might improve the host response during sepsis. Knowledge on the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in sepsis is limited. Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. This study sought to determine the effect of human ASCs on the host response during pneumosepsis in mice. Mice were infected with K. pneumoniae via the airways to induce a gradually evolving infection in the lung culminating pneumosepsis. One or 6 hours after infection, mice were infused intravenously with ASCs or vehicle, and euthanized after 16 hours or 48 hours, respectively. The effects of freshly cultured and cryopreserved ASCs were compared, the latter formulation being more clinically relevant. Intravenously administered ASCs were visualized in lung tissue by immunostaining at 1 and 3 hours, but not at 15 hours after infusion. Although early after infection, ASCs did not or only modestly influence bacterial loads, they reduced bacterial burdens in lungs and distant organs at 48 hours. ASCs reduced the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and attenuated lung pathology, but did not influence distant organ injury. ASCs strongly modified the lung transcriptome in uninfected mice and especially mice with pneumosepsis. Cryopreserved and cultured ASCs induced largely similar effects on the lung transcriptome. These data indicate that human ASCs induce profound immune modulatory effects in the lungs, resulting in reduced bacterial burdens and lung inflammation during pneumosepsis caused by a common human pathogen, suggesting that ASCs may be an adjunctive therapeutic in this condition. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:785&796.