In-situ incubation experiments were performed in typical tidal flooding wetlands and seasonal flooding wetlands in the Yellow River Delta of China to investigate sediment organic phosphorus (OP) mineralization and its influencing factors. The results showed that the sediment net P mineralization rate (RNPM) exhibited consistent seasonal variations in both wetlands, and it was more stable in the tidal flooding wetlands than in the seasonal flooding wetlands. Sediment P mineralization was greatly influenced by plant uptake and flooding erosion, and the freshwater input by flow-sediment regulation replenished the inorganic phosphorus (IP) pool in the wetland sediments. The OP, IP and total P in the sediments of the tidal flooding wetlands were in a state of dynamic equilibrium throughout the plant growing season, and plant uptake peaked during the period from August to September. In the seasonal flooding wetlands, rainfall and flow-sediment regulation were the key factors influencing the conversion between OP and IP. Besides sediment salinity and pH, microbial biomass and enzyme activities were also the key factors influencing the sediment RNPM in both wetlands. The findings of this study indicated that flooding frequencies and salinity could highly impact sediment P mineralization, and that the IP levels in sediments might be influenced by wetland hydrology and salinity.