To explore spatial and temporal characteristics of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression through multi-way decomposition of data.
Six serial VF exams with intervals of 6.0 ± 1.0 months in 121 pre-perimetric glaucoma eyes and 80 perimetric glaucoma eyes were arranged into a three-dimensional cube. The data were decomposed using parallel factor analysis.
Three tri-linear components (i.e., spatial scores, temporal loadings, and subject-specific loadings) were identified. Component 1 clearly showed differences between superior and inferior hemispheres, linear trends over time, and wide variability in perimetric glaucoma. Findings were compatible with well-known characteristics of glaucomatous VF defects. Component 2 showed nasal and central areas in contrast with superior, inferior, and temporal peripheral locations, whereas component 3 showed a contrast between nasal and temporal hemispheres. Both components 2 and 3 failed to show clear temporal trends.
Identification of spatio-temporal patterns shows new possibilities for a multi-way decomposition methodology for earlier diagnosis and prediction of glaucomatous VF progression.