Natural healing of bone lesions once incomplete or delayed bone regeneration represents an important clinical issue and plants possess compounds that may enhance bone healing, and avoid bone losses.
The aim of this review is to evaluate the potential role of medicinal plants in the bone regenaration.
This review has included relevant studies available in MEDLINE-PubMed in the last three years that associated the role of plants in the bone regeneration. The descriptors used were "bone regeneration and plants" and "bone regeneration and medicinal plants".
We selected 59 articles, but only 15 studies dovetailed the study objectives of this review. These studies showed that plants have potential in increasing in the osseointegration once their components may downregulate biomarkers such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Metalloproteinase 2, and 3. They may also upregulate mediators such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Transforming-Growing Factor-β1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type 1 collagen. The control in the production of these cytokines may help bone regeneration. Plant components such as curcumol, caffeic acid, resveratrol, luteolin, and many others may also be useful in bone health once may interfere in Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases, and may modulate Ca2+ signaling, inflammatory mediator genes, and inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.
Many plants possess components that are effective in promoting bone regeneration and new pharmaceutical technology and pharmacological researchers should be performed in order to establish the dose and the appropriate delivery vehicle of administration of the plant or its compounds.