The classification of morphologically normal sperm has been progressively redefined. Concurrently, our understanding of the significance of sperm morphology in relation to male factor infertility has evolved. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of sperm morphology assessment and factors that contribute to its measurement variability. We will examine the impact of sperm morphology on natural pregnancy, IUI, IVF, and ICSI outcomes.
There is a lack of consensus on sperm morphology classification, technique, and inter-observer grading variability. Current evidence suggests sperm morphology has low predictive value for pregnancy success, for both natural and assisted reproduction. Additionally, the threshold for what is considered an adequate percentage of morphologically normal sperm has changed over time. These variables have called into question the relevance of this variable in predicting fertility outcomes. Our understanding of the impact of sperm morphology on reproductive outcomes continues to evolve and seems to play less of a role than initially thought.