Inhaled terbutaline is commercially available β2-agonist which consists of equivalent amount of R- and S-enantiomer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of single enantiomers of terbutaline and its racemate in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma via. seven days inhalation and the potential mechanisms involved. In a standard experimental asthma model, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA. R-terbutaline (R-ter), S-terbutaline (S-ter) or racemic terbutaline (rac-ter) was given via. nose-only inhalation for one week. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured by the plethysmography in conscious mice. Eosinophils counts in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid were determined. The OVA-sIgE in plasma and inflammatory cytokines and mediators in BAL fluid or lung tissue were analyzed by ELISA, qRT-PCR or western blotting. Airway inflammation and remodeling were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson staining. Drug distribution and deposition after inhalation were determined by LC-MS/MS. Our data showed that R-ter efficiently ameliorated asthma responses, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophils influx and IL-5 in BALF, plasma OVA-sIgE and significantly reduced pulmonary inflammation, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, goblet cell hyperplasia, and deposition of collagen fibers, as well as downregulation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB expression. Racemic mixture exhibited diminished effects while S-ter enhanced airway responsiveness to methacholine and exerted pro-asthmatic effects.