Anacardium occidentale (AO) contains a number of polyphenolic secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity. The objectives of this study were aimed at investigating the roles of AO leaf extracts in antioxidative stress and longevity, as well as their underlying mechanisms, in the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. AO extracts mediated the survival rate of nematodes under oxidative stress by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the DAF-16/FoxO and SKN-1/Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AO extracts stimulated the expression of stress response genes including SOD-3 and GST-4. Moreover, AO extracts exhibited antiaging activities and enhanced longevity. We observed improved pharyngeal pumping function, attenuation of pigment accumulation (lipofuscin), and an increased lifespan of the worms. Collectively, our results demonstrated that AO extracts exerted both oxidative stress resistance and antiaging properties in the C. elegans model and may lead to new agents to benefit humans in the near future.