Approximately 65% of esophageal diverticulum cases are asymptomatic and are found by endoscopic examination. Symptomatic middle esophageal diverticulum requiring surgery is rare. In recent years, endoscopic surgery for middle esophageal diverticulum has been reported, but cases remain few in number, and the surgical indication, surgical procedure, and postoperative results are unknown.
A 41-year-old man had been diagnosed as having a middle esophageal diverticulum based on an upper gastrointestinal contrast examination performed when he was 30 years old. He had not received treatment because he was asymptomatic. Eight months earlier, he experienced chest discomfort after eating and visited our hospital. The diameter of his middle esophageal diverticulum was 47 mm. A gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a diverticulum in the right wall located 30 cm from the incisor row. The pathological findings of the endoscopic biopsy were atypical epithelium and no malignant findings. We confirmed the function of the lower esophageal sphincter, and the esophageal body peristaltic wave was observed to be normal using high-resolution manometry. We decided to perform a thoracoscopic diverticulectomy based on his symptoms and the possibility of malignancy suggested by the atypical epithelium. Surgery was performed with the patient in a prone position via 4 ports, and intraoperative endoscopy was performed during the surgery. To achieve a complete resection of the diverticulum, threads were placed on the oral and anal sides of the diverticulum, the threads were pulled, and the diverticulum was resected using an automatic suturing device. A postoperative upper gastrointestinal contrast examination revealed no abnormalities. He was discharged on postoperative day 12.
During thoracoscopic surgery for middle esophageal diverticulum, we think that pulling and separating the diverticulum and confirming the lumen using endoscopy are useful for reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence and stenosis. Few reports of long-term performance after surgery have been made for this procedure. Therefore, we believe that long-term follow-up is necessary.