Lactobacillus buchneri and Oenococcus oeni are two unique ethanol-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria species. Genome comparison analyses revealed that L. buchneri and O. oeni possess a pntAB locus that was absent in almost all other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) genomes. Our hypothesis is that the pntAB locus contributes to the ethanol tolerance trait of these two distinct ethanol-tolerant organisms. The pntAB locus, consisting of the pntA and pntB genes, codes for NADP(H) transhydrogenase subunits. This membrane-bound transhydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of NADP+ and is known as an important enzyme in maintaining cellular redox balance. In this study, the transhydrogenase operon from L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 and O. oeni PSU-1 were cloned and analyzed. The LbpntB shared 71.0% identity with the O. oeni (OopntB). The entire pntAB locus was expressed in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403 resulting in an increased tolerance to ethanol (6%), butanol (1.8%) and isopropanol (1.8%) when compared to the control strain. However, the recombinant E. coli cells carrying the entire pntAB locus did not show any improved ethanol tolerance. Independent expression of OopntB and LbpntB in recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS host demonstrated higher tolerance to ethanol when compared with a control E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS strain carrying pET28b vector. Ethanol tolerance comparison of E. coli strains carrying LbpntB and OopntB showed that LbpntB conferred higher ethanol tolerance (4.5%) and resulted in greater biomass, while the OopntB conferred lower ethanol tolerance (4.0%) resulted lower biomass. Therefore, the pntB gene from L. buchneri is a better choice in generating higher ethanol tolerance. This is the first study to uncover the role of pntAB locus on ethanol tolerance.