Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, has diuretic and natriuretic effects. The present study was designed to explore the possible underlying mechanisms for the diuretic and natriuretic effects of GLP-1 via renal nerves in rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GLP-1 receptors were avidly expressed in the pelvic wall, the wall being adjacent to afferent renal nerves immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide, which is the dominant neurotransmitter for renal afferents. GLP-1 (3 μM) infused into the left renal pelvis increased ipsilateral afferent renal nerve activity (110.0 ± 15.6% of basal value). Intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (1 µg·kg-1·min-1) for 30 min increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). After the distal end of the renal nerve was cut to eliminate the afferent signal, the increase in efferent renal nerve activity during intravenous infusion of GLP-1 was diminished compared with the increase in total RSNA (17.0 ± 9.0% vs. 68.1 ± 20.0% of the basal value). Diuretic and natriuretic responses to intravenous infusion of GLP-1 were enhanced by total renal denervation (T-RDN) with acute surgical cutting of the renal nerves. Selective afferent renal nerve denervation (A-RDN) was performed by bilateral perivascular application of capsaicin on the renal nerves. Similar to T-RDN, A-RDN enhanced diuretic and natriuretic responses to GLP-1. Urine flow and Na+ excretion responses to GLP-1 were not significantly different between T-RDN and A-RDN groups. These results indicate that the diuretic and natriuretic effects of GLP-1 are partly governed via activation of afferent renal nerves by GLP-1 acting on sensory nerve fibers within the pelvis of the kidney.