In kidney transplantation, donor recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR mismatch signals high immunologic risk and portends inferior outcomes. We compared the impacts of depleting vs non-depleting antibody induction on the outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) at different levels of HLA-DR mismatches.
Using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database, we identified adult KTRs from 2001 to 2015 who received induction therapy with either depleting (thymoglobulin/alemtuzumab) or non-depleting (basiliximab/daclizumab) antibody and were discharged on calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolic acid maintenance. Patients were then stratified by the number of donor-recipient HLA-DR mismatches (0, 1, 2) in both living donor (LD) and deceased donor (DD) KTRs. Under each HLA-DR mismatch category, long-term outcomes were compared for depleting vs non-depleting induction using a Cox model.
A total of 63,821 LD (HLA-DR mismatches: 0, n = 6945 [depleting = 4409, non-depleting = 2536]; 1, n = 19,557 [depleting = 13,558, non-depleting = 6019]; and 2, n = 10,727 [depleting = 7694, non-depleting = 3033]) and 64,922 DD (HLA-DR mismatches: 0, n = 13,915 [depleting = 10,124, non-depleting = 3791]; 1, n = 27,994 [depleting = 20,454, non-depleting = 7540]; and 2, n = 23,013 [depleting = 16,908, non-depleting = 6105]) KTRs were included in the analysis. Adjusted patient death risk was significantly lower in the depleting vs non-depleting antibody induction group among DD kidney recipients (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.96, P = .001) and trended lower among LD kidney recipients (HR 0.88, 95% 0.79-1.01, P = .05) with 2 HLA-DR mismatches.
Our study found a patient survival benefit associated with the use of perioperative induction with depleting when compared to non-depleting antibody in KTRs with 2 HLA-DR mismatches and maintained on a calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolic acid regimen.