This study aimed to measure the prevalence and associated factors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) among women living with and without HIV in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
A comparative cross-sectional study design was used to interview the 816 women between 18-49 years of age (408 = HIV positive, 408 = HIV negative). Using a multistage sampling technique, participants were recruited from nine health facilities based on probability proportional to the number of clients. After data entry (EpiData version 220.127.116.11) the data were exported to STATA/SE 15 software. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were undertaken and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) are presented.
The lifetime prevalence of IPV among all women was 59.7%, [95% CI: 56.31%-63.05%]. IPV was slightly higher among women living with HIV, 250(61.3%), than those who were HIV negative, 238(58.1%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional violence 413(50.6%), physical violence 349(42.8%), sexual violence 219(26.8%), and controlling behaviours by husbands/partners 489(59.9%) were reported. Associations were found between IPV and controlling behaviour of husband/partner [AOR = 8.13; 95% CI: 4.93-13.42],income [AOR = 3.97; 95% CI:1.81-8.72], bride price payment [AOR = 3.46; 95% CI:1.74-6.87], women's decision to refuse sex [AOR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.39-6.41],age group of women [AOR = 2.86; 95% CI:1.67-4.90], partner's family choosing wife [AOR = 2.83; 95% CI:1.70-4.69], alcohol consumption by partner [AOR = 2.36;95% CI:1.36-4.10], number of sexual partners [AOR = 2.35; 95% CI:1.36-4.09], and if partner ever physically fought with another man [AOR = 1.83; 95% CI:1.05-3.19].
There is a high prevalence of IPV against women both living with and without HIV. Policy priorities should therefore involve males in programs of gender-based violence prevention in order to change their violent behaviour, and interventions are required to improve the economic status of women. Both sexes should be advised to have a single partner and marriage arrangements should be by mutual consent rather than being made by parents.