Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent an important global threat. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with CRE infections treated with ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) compared to patients treated with other agents.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with established CRE infections from January 2017 until August 2018 was conducted. All patients who received CAZ-AVI and all cultures with carbapenem-resistant isolates were screened. We compared patients who received CAZ-AVI for CRE infections with patients who received other agents.
A total of 38 consecutive patients with CRE infections were identified. Age and baseline comorbidities were similar between the two groups. The median time from admission to isolation of CRE culture was 22.5 days in the CAZ-AVI group and 17 days in the comparative group (P = 0.7). The incidence of CRE bacteremia was similar between the two groups: 7 patients (70%) in the CAZ-AVI group and 15 patients (53.6%) in the comparative group (P = 0.47). The most common type of CRE infections in both groups was hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen in both groups. A carbapenemase gene was detected in 35 (92%) patients; the OXA-48 gene was the predominant gene identified in 28 (74%) isolates. Eight out of ten patients in the CAZ-AVI group and fifteen out of twenty-eight in the comparative group achieved clinical remission (P = 0.14). After thirty days, all-cause mortality was observed in five patients in the CAZ-AVI group and 16 patients in the comparative group, accounting for 50 and 57% respectively.
In patients with established OXA-48-type CRE infection, CAZ-AVI is a reasonable alternative to standard therapy. These findings need to be confirmed in prospective studies.