The agouti is a wild rodent located almost throughout the Brazilian territory, with great scientific importance and high reproductive potential when farmed. In the clinical routine, clinical and surgical procedures are performed on the nervous system of these animals, such as epidural anesthesia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection; however, data available are limited in literature on the main points of these procedures in this species. In this aspect, the objective was to describe the vertebromedullary topography of the agouti in order to identify and quantify it, with the intention of expanding the information regarding the clinical-surgical procedures in this system. Ten animals were incised longitudinally in the dorsal median line, removing the skin, the musculature, and dorsal fascia of the vertebral column; then, removed the vertebral arches and consequent exposure of the spinal cord and meninges. The morphometry of the animals was done by obtaining the total length, body length, and crown-rump length, as well as the total length of the spinal cord and its segments. The cervical intumescence in the agouti is located between C4-T1 and measures 2.45 cm. The lumbar intumescence is between L5-L7 and is 2.52 cm long. The cauda equina arises from S2 and the filum terminale from S3. As for the medullary cone, it is located between L7-S1 and is 2.52 cm long. The suggested localization for epidural anesthesia or CSF puncture for laboratory tests in agoutis is the lumbosacral space, with the insertion of the needle to be carried out at angle of 90° in the sphinx position. Anat Rec, 303:1472-1477, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.