High myopia may develop to pathologic myopia, which brings severe visual impairment; however, the etiology is not fully understood. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between the presence of posterior staphyloma and posterior ocular disorders by assessing the patients with high myopia. A retrospective study was performed for the patients, who have more than 26 mm of the axial length and of whom fundus photography was taken with an ultra-widefield retinal imaging system. The objectives were 138 cases encompassing 229 eyes. In 138 cases, 91 were bilateral and 47 were unilateral. The averages ± SD of axial length of bilateral and unilateral were 28.8 ± 2.2 mm, 27.3 ± 1.2 mm, respectively, showing statistically significant difference. The number of eyes with and without posterior staphyloma were 107 (46.7%) and 122 (53.3%), respectively. Retinal detachment and retinal breaks are more observed in cases without posterior staphyloma (p = 0.017). Myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) (p = 0.002), chorioretinal atrophy (p < 0.001), retinoschisis (p < 0.001), and optic neuropathy (p = 0.038) are more often seen in cases with posterior staphyloma. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of myopic choroidal neovascularization, retinal choroidal atrophy, and optic neuropathy were significantly higher with posterior staphyloma. The rate of periocular disorders such as retinal detachment was significantly higher without posterior staphyloma. These results indicate associations between types of pathological myopia and presence or absence of posterior staphyloma analyzed by ultra-widefield retinal imaging.