The objective of the given work was to investigate abrasive wear behaviours of titanium (Ti) treated by ultrasonic surface rolling processing (USRP) pre-treatment and plasma nitriding (PN). Simulated lunar regolith particles (SLRPs) were employed as abrasive materials during characterization of tribological performances. The experimental results showed that SLRPs cause severe abrasive wear on Ti plasma-nitrided at 750 °C via the mechanism of micro-cutting. Due to the formation of a harder and thicker nitriding layer, the abrasive wear resistance of the Ti plasma-nitrided at 850 °C was enhanced, and its wear mechanism was mainly fatigue. USRP pre-treatment was effective at enhancing the abrasive wear resistance of plasma-nitrided Ti, due to the enhancement of the hardness and thickness of the nitride layer. Nevertheless, SLRPs significantly decreased the friction coefficient of Ti treated by USRP pre-treatment and PN, because the rolling of small granular abrasives impeded the adhesion of the worn surface. Furthermore, USRP pre-treatment also caused the formation of a dimpled surface with a large number of micropores which can hold wear debris during tribo-tests, and finally, polishing and rolling the wear debris resulted in a low friction coefficient (about 0.5).