Loss of glomerular podocytes is the crucial event in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), a newfangled branch of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA), recently reported to play a vital part in several diseases. In present study, we aimed to detect and reveal the role of tRFs in podocyte differentiation. The expression levels of tRFs between undifferentiated and differentiated podocytes were sequenced by illumina nextseq 500, and further verified by quantitative RT-PCR. 69 upregulated and 70 downregulated tRFs in total were singled out (Fold change > 2, P < 0.05). Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated they are involved in the biological processes of transcription, DNA-templated, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, angiogenesis, cell adhesion. Besides, KEGG analysis suggested that these differentially tRFs are associated with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway. Therefore, the differentially tRFs might regulate the differentiation of podocyte and the process of CKD. The functions and mechanisms of tRFs in podocytes are needed to be further explored.