This study evaluated associations of score-based and nutrient-derived dietary patterns with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older Japanese.
982 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older.
Score-based pattern was assessed by using dietary variety score (DVS), which covers 10 food group items in Japanese meals. Nutrient-derived dietary patterns were identified by using reduced rank regression (RRR), with folate, vitamin C, magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes as response variables. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for these dietary patterns in multivariate logistic regression analyses with potential confounders. The lowest consumption category was used as the reference group.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 13.5%. Higher DVS was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.27-1.03 for the highest vs the lowest DVS; P for trend=0.031). The first RRR dietary pattern score was characterized by high intakes of fish, soybean products, potatoes, most vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fruits, and green tea and a low intake of rice and was inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.30-0.92; P for trend=0.030).
Greater dietary variety and a dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of fish, soybean products, potatoes, most vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fruit, and green tea and a low intake of rice were consistently associated with lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older Japanese. Therefore, both patterns identified the components of dietary habits essential to depression prevention.