Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic components, the common risk factors, may be involved in the development and progression of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The aim of this study was to examine the association of MetS and its metabolic components with eGFR status and severity among Chinese adults.
The population-based, cross-sectional study recruited a total of 33,300 Chinese adults (aged ≥18 years) from 4 study community sites in Songjiang District, Shanghai, between June 2016 and December 2017. Decreased eGFR was defined as a value of eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of MetS and its components with eGFR status and severity.
After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with MetS had an increased risk of decreased eGFR with an adjusted OR of 1.76 (95% CI 1.53-2.01), and subjects with increasing numbers of MetS components had a gradually increased risk for decreased eGFR (p trend <0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of decreased eGFR were 1.66 (1.44-1.93) for abdominal obesity, 1.37 (1.18-1.60) for elevated triglycerides, 1.13 (0.96-1.33) for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.84 (0.72-0.98) for elevated fasting glucose, and 1.92 (1.57-2.35) for elevated blood pressure (BP). Furthermore, these associations remained in most of the subgroups analyses. Significant associations between elevated BP and the risks of mildly, moderately, and severely decreased eGFR were also found.
MetS was independently associated with an increased risk of decreased eGFR, and individual components of MetS each play a different role in decreased eGFR. Elevated BP may be an important risk factor for the progression of renal dysfunction or even chronic kidney disease.