Global demand for novel, biocompatible, eco-friendly resources to fight diseases inspired this study. We investigated plants used in traditional medicine systems and utilized nanotechnology to synthesize, evaluate, and enhance potential applications in nanomedicine.
Aqueous leaf extract from Melia azedarach (MA) was utilized for bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (MA-AgNPs). Reaction conditions were optimized for high yield and colloidal stability was evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy. MA-AgNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standard methods were used to analyze the antibacterial, wound healing, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.
The formation of MA-AgNPs at room temperature was confirmed by stable brown colloidal solution with maximum absorbance at 420 nm (UV-Vis Spectroscopy). MA-AgNPs were spherical (SEM), uniformly dispersed, 14-20 nm in diameter (TEM), and crystalline in nature (XRD). Presence of elemental silver was confirmed by peak at 3 KeV (EDX). FTIR data revealed the presence of functional groups which indicate phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids) may have acted as the reducing and capping agents. MA-AgNPs (1000 µg/mL) showed larger zone of inhibition than MA-extract in the disk diffusion assay for human pathogenic gram positive bacteria, Bacillus cereus (34 mm) and gram negative, Escherichia coli (37 mm), thus confirming their higher antibacterial activity. The cell scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells revealed potential wound healing activity. The MA-AgNPs (400 µg/mL) demonstrated high antidiabetic efficacy as measured by α-amylase (85.75%) and α-glucosidase (80.33%) inhibition assays and antioxidant activity as analyzed by DPPH (63.83%) and ABTS (63.61%) radical scavenging assays. Toxic effect of MA-AgNPs against human chang liver cells (CCL-13) as determined by MTS assay, optical microscopic and CMFDA dye methods was insignificant.
This sustainable, green synthesis of AgNPs is a competitive alternative to conventional methods and will play a significant role in biomedical applications of Melia azedarach.