Wind field is a very important physical factor controlling the formation of cyanobacteria blooms. A surface particle tracking drift experiment was carried out to study the influence of wind field on the surface current in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu during the algal bloom season. For this, chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, phosphorus, the permanganate index, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in surface, middle, and bottom waters of the Meiliang Bay during the cyanobacteria bloom period to test how wind field affects the temporal and spatial distribution of cyanobacterial blooms and biomass stock in the water column. The results showed that the average drift velocities of surface particles were 3.0 cm·s-1 and 5.0 cm·s-1 when wind speed averaged 1.9 m·s-1 and 2.3 m·s-1, respectively. The wind field determined the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters and led to a high spatial heterogeneity of cyanobacterial blooms. The spatial redistribution of cyanobacterial blooms exerted an important influence on water quality indexes such as particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, and dissolved oxygen. The concentrations of particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, the permanganate index, and chlorophyll-a showed a similar vertical distribution pattern. Cyanobacterial blooms were less influenced by the distribution of dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from external pollution, while long-term legacy loading played a more important role. This meant that the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon were different from that of chlorophyll-a. Because the redistribution of cyanobacterial blooms, as affected by wind fields, has a complex effect on the dissolved oxygen in the water column, the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with depth, which may affect the release of soluble nutrients from the sediment. The cyanobacterial biomass stock in the surface water was estimated according to the survey of high-density sites. The dry matter of cyanobacteria in the surface 20 cm of Meiliang Bay was approximately 396 tons on the day of sampling. The results from the present study indicated that the factors influencing cyanobacterial blooms should be considered in sampling methods and the analysis of lake water quality due to the significant influence of wind fields on bloom drift. The collection of cyanobacteria has limited effect on the removal of the algal bloom biomass in whole lake, only being effective at prevention of the event of black spots in lake shore.