Assessment of frailty can help surgeons predict perioperative risk and guide preoperative counseling. However, current methods are often cumbersome in the clinical setting. We prospectively compared the effectiveness of a rapid picture based Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS-9) assessed by patient and surgeon against reference standard Fried Frailty Index in older patients with pelvic floor conditions.
We enrolled 71 patients between March 2018 and June 2019. Frailty assessment using CFS-9 (scale ranging from very fit to terminally ill) was performed followed by the Fried Frailty Index, a validated tool of 5 measures (shrinking, physical energy, activity, grip strength, walking speed). Correlations and agreement between Fried Frailty Index and CFS-9 scores from the treating surgeon, a second surgeon (surgeon 2) and patient were analyzed using sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve and Cohen's Kappa.
The patient cohort was mostly female (97.2%), with a mean age (±SD) of 73.0 (±5.9) years and 23.9% were frail using the Fried Frailty Index. Compared to the Fried Frailty Index, CFS-9 scores of the treating surgeon, surgeon 2 and patient had AUC values (95% CI) of 0.86 (0.77-0.86), 0.91 (0.84-0.91) and 0.88 (0.79-0.88), respectively. As assessed by Cohen's Kappa the CFS-9 scores all had substantial (surgeon 2, Kappa 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.85 or moderate (all other CFS-9 measures, Kappa 0.44 to 0.58) agreement with the Fried Frailty Index scores.
Rapid and effective validated tools to screen for frailty are needed in the clinical setting. CFS-9 is an excellent predictor of frailty compared to the Fried Frailty Index for patients with pelvic floor conditions.