Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is an emerging global public health threat that causes life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) represents a promising advance for the treatment of serious infections caused by KPC-Kp We investigated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of experimental KPC-Kp pneumonia in persistently neutropenic rabbits. For single-dose and multidose (administration every 8 h) pharmacokinetics, rabbits received ceftazidime-avibactam intravenous infusions at 60/15, 90/22.5, and 120/30 mg/kg of body weight. Ceftazidime mean area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) ranged from 287 to 608 μg·h/ml for a single dose and from 300 to 781 μg·h/ml for multiple doses. Avibactam AUCs ranged from 21 to 48 μg·h/ml for a single dose and from 26 to 48 μg·h/ml for multiple doses. KPC-Kp pneumonia was established by direct endotracheal inoculation. Treatments consisted of ceftazidime-avibactam at 120/30 mg/kg every 6 h, a polymyxin B (PMB) loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg followed by 1.5 mg/kg every 12 h q12h, or no treatment (untreated controls [UC]). There were significant reductions in the residual bacterial burden, lung weights, and pulmonary hemorrhage scores in CZA- and PMB-treated rabbits for a 7-day or a 14-day (P ≤ 0.01) course in comparison with those in the UC. These results corresponded to significant decreases in the bacterial burden in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after a 7-day or a 14-day treatment (P ≤ 0.01). The outcomes demonstrated an improved response at 14 days versus that at 7 days. There was significantly prolonged survival in rabbits treated with CZA for 14 days in comparison with that in the PMB-treated or UC rabbits (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrates that ceftazidime-avibactam displays linear dose-proportional exposures simulating those seen from human plasma pharmacokinetic profiles, is active for the treatment of experimental KPC-Kp pneumonia in persistently neutropenic rabbits, and provides an experimental foundation for the treatment of severely immunocompromised patients with this life-threatening infection.