An appropriate perioperative infusion management is pivotal for the perioperative outcome of the patient. Optimization of the perioperative fluid treatment often results in enhanced postoperative outcome, reduced perioperative complications and shortened hospitalization. Hypovolemia as well as hypervolemia can lead to an increased rate of perioperative complications. The main goal is to maintain perioperative euvolemia by goal-directed therapy (GDT), a combination of fluid management and inotropic medication, to optimize perfusion conditions in the perioperative period; however, perioperative fluid management should also include the preoperative and postoperative periods. This encompasses the preoperative administration of carbohydrate-rich drinks up to 2 h before surgery. In the postoperative period, patients should be encouraged to start per os hydration early and excessive i.v. fluid administration should be avoided. Implementation of a comprehensive multimodal, goal-directed fluid management within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is efficient but the exact status of indovodual items remains unclear at present.