Due to the wide use of plastic products and the releasability of plasticizer into surrounding environment, the hazards, residues and effects of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in ecosystems have been paid more and more attention. Little information is available about the effects of PAEs on the normal wastewater treatment, although the distribution of PAEs in soil and other ecosystems is closely related to the discharge of sewage. In this study, the effects of high concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on pollutant removal and the microbial community during landfill leachate treatment was investigated. After domestication, the activated sludge was used in the co-treatment of landfill leachate and simulated domestic wastewater. We verified that this process reduced the toxicity of landfill leachate. However, high concentrations of added DBP and DEHP were removed first, while the removal of these pollutants from raw landfill leachate was limited. The results of high-throughput sequencing revealed that the bacterial diversity was diminished and the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the addition of DBP and DEHP. The DBP and DEHP samples had 79.05% and 82.25% operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively, in common with the raw activated sludge. Many genera of PAE-degrading bacteria that had no significant evolutionary relationship were found in the raw activated sludge. And the widespread presence of PAE-degrading bacteria could effectively keep the concentrations of PAEs low during the wastewater treatment.