Vitamin C has been known for decades. It is common in everyday use as an element of the diet, supplementation, and a preservative. For years, research has been conducted to precisely determine the mechanism of action of ascorbate in the cell. Available results indicate its multi-directional cellular effects. Vitamin C, which belongs to antioxidants scavenging free radicals, also has a 'second face'-as a pro-oxidative factor. However, whether is the latter nature a defect harmful to the cell, or whether a virtue that is a source of benefit? In this review, we discuss the effects of vitamin C treatment in cancer prevention and the role of ascorbate in maintaining redox balance in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, we discuss the effect of vitamin C supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and review the evidence that vitamin C has radioprotective properties.