Multiple high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the hallmark of Parkes-Weber syndrome (PWS). Surgical resection has historically shown poor outcomes with PWS. The aim of this study was to assess the management of PWS in the current era.
A retrospective review was performed from 2004 to 2017 on all patients presenting to a single institution for the management of PWS. Presentation, techniques, complications, and outcomes were reviewed.
Fourteen patients (50% male) with PWS were seen at our institution, and mean age was 19.9 years (range, 4.7-68.8). The lower extremity was affected in 12 (86%) and the upper extremity in 2 (14%) patients. All patients presented with pain and swelling in the affected limb. Seven (50%) patients presented with ulcers, of which 3 (43%) had extensive wounds. Five (36%) patients had echocardiographic evidence of high-output cardiac failure. All patients underwent angiography with the intention to treat. Three (21%) patients were found to have diffuse arteriovenous communication with no discrete AVM nidus and thus did not undergo intervention. The remaining 11 (79%) patients underwent transcatheter embolization of the AVM's arterial inflow. Six (55%) patients required multiple or staged inflow embolization procedures, with a mean of 3.3 (range, 1-10) interventions. Thirty-two arterial embolization procedures were performed in total. n-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (nBCA) adhesive was used in 22 (69%), microspheres in 8 (25%), and a combination of coils and nBCA adhesive in 2 (6%) cases. Technical angiographic success was seen in all patients. Six (55%) patients also had interventions to treat the venous component of the malformation, either concomitantly or during a separate procedure. This included radiofrequency ablation in 1 (17%), coil embolization in 1 (17%), sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) sclerotherapy in 2 (33%), and a combination of STS, coil embolization, and vein stripping in 2 (33%) patients. Ten (91%) patients experienced a partial response and 1 (9%) patient experienced no response to treatment. No patients had a complete response, as expected with the diffuse nature of this disease. There were no periprocedural complications. Two of 3 patients with complex wounds required major amputations for gangrene, including one above-knee and one below-knee amputation at 128 months and 66 months after the index procedure, respectively.
AVMs in PWS can be successfully treated by a transcatheter approach. Multiple interventions are usually required. Patients with extensive wounds remain at risk for loss of limb.