Plant lesion mimic mutants have been used as ideal materials for studying pathogen defense mechanisms due to their spontaneous activation of defense responses in plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a rice lesion mimic mutant, oshpl3. The oshpl3 mutant initially displayed white spots on leaves of 7-day-old seedlings, and the white spots gradually turned into large brown spots during plant development, accompanied by poor metrics of major agronomic traits. Histochemical analysis showed that spontaneous cell death and H2O2 hyperaccumulation occurred in oshpl3. Defense responses were induced in the oshpl3 mutant, such as enhanced ROS signaling activated by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and also upregulated expression of genes involved in pathogenesis and JA metabolism. These defense responses enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The mutated gene was identified as OsHPL3 (LOC_Os02g02000) by map-based cloning. A G1006A mutation occurred in OsHPL3, causing a G-to-D mutation of the 295th amino acid in the transmembrane region of OsHPL3. OsHPL3 localized to the chloroplast, cytoplasm, and another unknown organelle, while the mutated protein OsHPL3G295D was not obviously observed in the chloroplast, suggesting that the G295D mutation affected its chloroplast localization. Based on our findings, the G295D mutation in OsHPL3 is most likely responsible for the phenotypes of the oshpl3 mutant. Our results provide new clues for studying the function of the OsHPL3 protein.