Background: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare diffuse lung disease. Reports of rare cases of PAP due to Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) exist in infants with immunodeficiency diseases, but no cases have been reported to date in pediatric patients with type 1 hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1). Case Presentation: Herein, we present a case of PAP secondary to P. jirovecii on an infant with HIGM1. He was admitted to our unit because of cough and tachypnea. Lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAP, whereas hexamine-silver staining of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid identified P. jirovecii infection. No other probable cause of PAP was observed. Whole exome sequencing indicated a novel c.511dupA (p.I171N*30) hemizygous mutation in the CD40 ligand (CD40LG) gene. He was cured with bronchoalveolar lavage and compound sulfamethoxazole tablets.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of P. jirovecii infection as a reversible cause of PAP in an infant with HIGM1.