Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a critical issue in prematurity care. To predict the PDA closure early, we aimed to clarify the association of PDA closure with the initial postnatal 24-hour clinical characteristics and maternal and gestational histories of preterm neonates.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a pediatric-neonatal-intensive-care-unit from 2008 to 2013. Data relating to birth histories, maternal histories, and clinical data from the first 24 h of life were analyzed according to three types of PDA closure-non-treated, medically-responsive, and surgically-ligated PDA and birth body weights (BBWs). Univariate analysis was performed using non-parametric analysis and Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression to determine the independent risk factors for the PDA closure.
This study involved 682 preterm infants with median gestational age of 31 (interquartile, IQR: 28-34) weeks and BBW of 1360 (IQR: 1085-1861) g. Inclusively, 16.7% of (P)DAs underwent medical and/or surgical treatment. For very low birth body weight (VLBW) neonates, surfactant use not only predicted the requirement of PDA treatment, but together with dopamine use and the larger amount of first 24-hour intravenous fluid (IVF) per kilogram of BBW, it also predicted the possibility of surgical ligation. Meanwhile, the cut-off values of the IVF amount (87 and 89.5 ml/kg/day, respectively) might predict the PDA treatment necessity and surgical ligation. For neonates with BBW ≥1500 g, placenta previa and lower BBW and systolic blood pressure (SBP) predicted the risk of treatment for PDA and its treatment response.
Neonatal care for PDA in prematurity should be meticulously personalized. Surfactant use, dopamine administration and the first 24-hour IVF management may be critical for PDA closure in VLBW neonates. Antepartum history of placenta previa, BBW and SBP control may be important for BBW≥1500 g.