MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation in a plethora of processes, including actin-myosin cytoskeleton dynamics. Recent evidence points to the widespread effects of miRNAs on actin-myosin cytoskeleton dynamics, either directly on the expression of actin and myosin genes or indirectly on the diverse signaling cascades modulating cytoskeletal arrangement. Furthermore, studies from various human models indicate that miRNAs contribute to the development of various human disorders. The potentially huge impact of miRNA-based mechanisms on cytoskeletal elements is just starting to be recognized. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about the importance of microRNA modulation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton affecting physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, hematopoiesis, podocyte physiology, and osteogenesis.