Combretum micranthum G. Don (CM) is extensively used in traditional medicine throughout West Africa and commonly known as "long-life herbal tea" or "plant to heal". Further, traditional healers frequently use the title plant to mitigate of renal disorders.
To explore the nephroprotective property of standardised hydroalcoholic extract of Combretum micranthum in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. In addition, in-silico computational experiments were performed with bioactive compounds of the title plant against PPARα and PPARγ.
Male rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of STZ (50 mg/kg), 15 min after ip administration of NA (100 mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline. The diabetic rats received CM extract (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) daily, for eight weeks. Body weights and blood glucose (non-fasting and fasting) of rats were measured weekly. Daily food and water consumption were also measured. After 8 weeks of treatment, urine biochemical parameters such as N-Acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase (NAG), urea (UR), uric acid (UA), creatinine (CRE), and serum markers of diabetes, kidney damage and liver damage such as insulin, lipid parameters), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT), albumin (Alb), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus (P), were estimated. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were also estimated. kidney and liver were used for biochemical estimation of oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The kidney and pancreas were used for histopathological study. Further, HPLC chemoprofiling of CM extract and in-silico molecular simulation experiments were performed.
At the end of eight weeks, renal damage induced by the consequence of prolong diabetic condition was confirmed by altered levels of serum and urine kidney and liver function markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological variations in kidney. Treatment with CM extract ameliorated the diabetes mellitus-induced renal biochemical parameters and histopathological changes. Further, HPLC-UV & MS experiments revealed that CM extract contains several bioactive compounds including hyperozide (62.35 μg/mg of extract) and quercitrin (19.07 μg/mg of extract). In-silico experiment exhibited cianidanol (-17.133), epicatechin (-15.107) exhibited higher docking score against PPARα and luteoforol (-11.038), epigallocatechin (-10.736) against PPARγ. Based on docking and drug likeness score, four bioactive compounds were selected for molecular dynamic experiments. Cianidanol and epigallocatechin out of the 30 compounds are concluded as a potential candidate for the treatment of DN through activating PPARα and PPARγ target protein.
Taken together, the present study provided the scientific footage for the traditional use of Combretum micranthum.