In the present study, the profile of phenolic compounds in colored (white, yellow, black and blue) naked barley was detected and their content and antioxidant abilities were investigated. The results showed that there were 156 phenolic substances identified, including monophenol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and other polyphenols. The black sample had the most types of phenolic. The content of phenolic varies depending on color of naked barley and the highest values of total phenolic acid and total flavonoids were observed in black and white samples. Furthermore, the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power and the free radical scavenging ability of DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion showed in white, white, yellow and black naked barley. While white and yellow samples had the strongest scavenging ability of hydroxyl radical. There was significant correlation between phenolic components and anti-oxidation. This study suggests that colored naked barley grains are rich in phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity.