We conducted a critical analysis of the available epidemiologic investigations on the causal relationship between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. A review of nine case-control studies indicates that the estimated risk (odds ratio) attributable to asbestos exposure alone is negligible when smoking and ethanol intake are appropriately controlled for. Six of the 12 cohort studies demonstrated no significant increase in the standardized mortality ratio due to asbestos exposure. The remaining six longitudinal studies showed an increased standardized mortality ratio from 1.91 to 5.41 but no adjustment was made for the confounding effects of smoking and ethanol consumption. In conclusion, the available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal association between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer.