Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of mortality in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) development and is used as an early marker of CVD in pediatric CKD. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of LVDD and the association between LVH and LVDD in Korean pediatric CKD patients.
Data were collected using the baseline data of the Korean cohort study for outcome in patients with pediatric chronic kidney disease, a nationwide, 10-year, prospective, observational cohort study of pediatric CKD. A total of 244 patients were included in the final analysis. Two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler images were used to evaluate LVH and LVDD. LVH was defined as an LV mass index (LVMI) ≥38 g/m2.7 and LV-wall thickness z-score > 1.64. LVDD was defined as a mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') > 14. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors of LVDD.
In this study, the male-to-female ratio was 2.2 (168:76) and median age was 11.2 years. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate was 57.4 ml/min/1.73 m2, and no patients received renal replacement therapy. The mean value of LVMI and E/E' was 37.0 g/m2.7 and 7.4, respectively. The prevalence of LVH was 40.1 and 17.4% by LVMI ≥38 g/m2.7 and LV-wall thickness z-score, respectively. The prevalence of LVDD was 4.5%, and patients with LVH showed greater risk of LVDD (odds ratio 7.3, p = 0.012). In the univariate analysis, young age, low hemoglobin level, higher LVMI, and higher LV-wall thickness z-score were associated with LVDD. In the multivariate analysis, young age, low hemoglobin level, and higher LV-wall thickness z-score were independently associated with LVDD.
This study shows that LVH patients have a greater risk of LVDD and that anemia is the only modifiable risk factor for LVDD in Korean pediatric CKD patients.