Endogenous oxidized phospholipids are produced during tissue stress and are responsible for sustaining inflammatory responses in immune as well as non-immune cells. Their local and systemic production and accumulation is associated with the etiology and progression of several inflammatory diseases, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological activities of these oxidized phospholipids remain elusive. Increasing evidence highlights the ability of these stress mediators to modulate cellular metabolism and pro-inflammatory signaling in phagocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and to alter the activation and polarization of these cells. Because these immune cells serve a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and organ function, understanding how endogenous oxidized lipids reshape phagocyte biology and function is vital for designing clinical tools and interventions for preventing, slowing down, or resolving chronic inflammatory disorders that are driven by phagocyte dysfunction. Here, we discuss the metabolic and signaling processes elicited by endogenous oxidized lipids and outline new hypotheses and models to elucidate the impact of these lipids on phagocytes and inflammation.