We identified a short fruit3 (sf3) mutant in cucumber. Map-based cloning revealed that CsKTN1 gene encodes a katanin p60 subunit, which is associated with the regulation of fruit elongation. Fruit length is an important horticultural trait for both fruit yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Knowledge on the molecular regulation of fruit elongation in cucumber is very limited. In this study, we identified and characterized a cucumber short fruit3 (sf3) mutant. Histological examination indicated that the shorter fruit in the mutant was due to reduced cell numbers. Genetic analysis revealed that the phenotype of the sf3 mutant was controlled by a single gene with semi-dominant inheritance. By map-based cloning and Arabidopsis genetic transformation, we showed that Sf3 was a homolog of KTN1 (CsKTN1) encoding a katanin p60 subunit. A non-synonymous mutation in the fifth exon of CsKTN1 resulted in an amino acid substitution from Serine in the wild type to Phenylalanine in the sf3 mutant. CsKTN1 expressed in all tissues of both the wild type and the sf3 mutant. However, there was no significant difference in CsKTN1 expression levels between the wild type and the sf3 mutant. The hormone quantitation and RNA-seq analysis suggested that auxin and gibberellin contents are decreased in sf3 by changing the expression levels of genes related with auxin and gibberellin metabolism and signaling. This work helps understand the function of the katanin and the molecular mechanisms of fruit growth regulation in cucumber.