Eight patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes underwent two 2-wk study periods in random order during which they were provided with carbohydrate foods with either a high or low glycemic index (GI). Over both high-GI and low-GI periods there were significant reductions in body weight, serum fructosamine, and cholesterol. Reductions in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and urinary c-peptide-to-creatinine ratio were significant only over the low-GI period despite a smaller mean weight loss. Reductions in triglyceride were significant only over the high-GI diet. Inclusion of low-GI foods into diets of patients with diabetes may be an additional measure that favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism without increasing insulin demand.