The Delta variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a new global wave of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines currently available in China show high effectiveness against severe illness and death. However, transmission of the virus is not fully stopped by vaccination alone, therefore, integrated vaccination and non-pharmacological interventions is necessary to prevent and control the epidemic in the near future. Further expanded vaccine coverage of primary doses as well as booster shots in China's domestic population are needed to reduce severe illness and death. In order to provide evidence necessary for adjusting and optimizing immunization strategies and pandemic control measures, it is essential to conduct research on vaccine effectiveness against emerging variants, persistence of vaccine-induced protection, surveillance of adverse event following immunization with large-scale vaccine use, and modelling studies on strategic combinations of vaccination and non-pharmacological interventions.